- Before he became president, Lyndon Johnson was a teacher at a small school in South Texas.
- Before he became president, Woodrow Wilson was president of Princeton University.
- Only one president was a preacher -- James Garfield.
- Did you know that William Howard Taft is the only President who served as both President and Chief Justice of the United States?
- President John F. Kennedy won a Pulitzer Prize in 1957 for his collection of essays, Profiles in Courage.
- Both George Washington and Jimmy Carter were farmers before they became president -- President Washington was a planter and a farmer at his home in Mount Vernon, and Before he was President, Jimmy Carter ran his family's peanut farm in Plains, Georgia.
- Before he became president, Barack Obama was a U.S. Senator. Before that, he was an Illinois State Senator, and before that he was a community organizer in Chicago.
- The President's personal office is called the oval office. Any plane he flies on is called Air Force One, and any helicopter is called Marine One.
- The "S" in Harry S. Truman's name isn't short for anything. The President was named after both of his grandfathers, Anderson Shippe Truman and Solomon Young. The initial honors them both.
- The first public reading of the Declaration of Independence took place in Philadelphia -- where the bell now-known as the Liberty Bell rang out to call the city's population together on July 8, 1776.
- On July 9, 1776, General George Washington gave an order for the Declaration of Independence to be read to his army.
- In the early part of the 19th century, a network called the Underground Railroad, which received its name in 1831, helped escaped slaves gain freedom. As a conductor on the Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman helped 300 slaves gain freedom during the 1800s.
- The Statue of Liberty was a gift of friendship resulting from the diplomatic relationship between the United States and France.
- President Lincoln owned only one home during his lifetime -- in Springfield, Ill.
- President Jefferson spent more than 40 years designing and building his home in Charlottesville, VA known as Monticello. The President admired classical architecture and incorporated this style into his home.
- President Jackson's estate outside of Nashville, TN was known as the Hermitage.
- President Richard M. Nixon was offered a position as a player's representative to the Major League Baseball Players Association in 1965. He declined, stating that he was needed in politics. Nixon served as President from 1969 to 1974.
- George H.W. Bush played first base on the Yale University team that twice reached the finals of the College World Series.
- Grace Coolidge, wife of President Calvin Coolidge, could often be found keeping a perfect scorecard while watching baseball games in the presidential box.
- In 1915, Woodrow Wilson became the first President to attend the World Series, where he and his fiance, Edith Gault, made their first public appearance since announcing their engagement. The President insisted on paying for his own tickets.
- In 1787, just four years after the end of war with Great Britain, 55 delegates gathered in Philadelphia to replace the Articles of Confederation. The Constitutional Convention led to the creation of the U.S. Constitution, which was signed on September 17, 1787.
- On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution.
- The first day Congress conducted business under the Constitution was April 6, 1789. On this day, members of Congress counted the votes of the electors, who unanimously elected George Washington as the nation's first president.
- In order to amend the Constitution, three quarters of all states must vote in favor before the proposed amendment becomes law.
- During the 1930s, a militaristic Japan invaded and brutalized Manchuria and China as it sought military and economic domination over Asia. The United States refused to recognize Japanese conquests in Asia and imposed an embargo on exports of oil and steel to Japan. Tensions rose, but both countries negotiated to avoid war.
- While negotiating with the United States and without any warning, Japan carried out an air attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941. The attack destroyed much of the American Pacific fleet and killed several thousand Americans. Roosevelt called it “a date that will live in infamy” as he asked Congress to declare war on Japan.
- After Pearl Harbor, Hitler honored a pact with Japan and declared war on the United States. The debates over isolationism in the United States were over. World War II was now a true world war, and the United States was fully involved.
- El Alamein — German forces threatening to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal were defeated by the British. This defeat prevented Hitler from gaining access to Middle Eastern oil supplies and potentially attacking the Soviet Union from the south.
- Stalingrad — Hundreds of thousands of German soldiers were killed or captured in a months-long siege of the Russian city of Stalingrad. This defeat prevented Germany from seizing the Soviet oil fields and turned the tide against Germany in the east.
- Normandy landings (D-Day) — American and Allied troops under Eisenhower landed in German-occupied France on June 6, 1944. Despite intense German opposition and heavy American casualties, the landings succeeded, and the liberation of Western Europe from Hitler had begun.__
- Midway — In the “Miracle of Midway,” American naval forces defeated a much larger Japanese force as it prepared to seize Midway Island. Coming only a few months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, a Japanese victory at Midway would have enabled Japan to invade Hawaii. The American victory ended the Japanese threat to Hawaii and began a series of American victories in the “island hopping” campaign that carried the war closer and closer to Japan.
- Iwo Jima and Okinawa — The American invasions of the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa brought American forces closer than ever to Japan, but both invasions cost thousands of American lives and even more Japanese lives, as Japanese soldiers fought fiercely over every square inch of the islands and Japanese soldiers and civilians committed suicide rather than surrender.
- Use of the atomic bomb — Facing the prospect of horrendous casualties among both Americans and Japanese if American forces had to invade Japan itself, President Harry Truman ordered the use of atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to force the Japanese to surrender. Tens of thousands of people were killed in both cities. Shortly after the bombs were used, the Japanese leaders surrendered, avoiding the need for American forces to invade Japan.
- Germany hoped to defeat the Soviet Union quickly, gain control of Soviet oil fields, and force Britain out of the war through a bombing campaign and submarine warfare before America’s industrial and military strength could turn the tide.
- Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded the Philippines and Indonesia and planned to invade both Australia and Hawaii. Its leaders hoped that America would then accept Japanese predominance in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, rather than conduct a bloody and costly war to reverse Japanese gains.
(A) taxes on income were needed by the government to raise revenues.
(B) land scarcity and a rapidly growing population seriously curtailed economic opportunities.
(C) most people of the period were unusually gullible and thus easily motivated by slogans and proverbs.
(D) formal education and specialized skills were less necessary to economic success than they would later become.
(E) legal restraints on the inheritance of wealth were increasing.
(A) The large number of English-speaking settlers in Canada.
(B) The discovery of the Northwest Passage.
(C) The thin settlement of France's North American colonies.
(D) The munitions industry in England's Atlantic Seaboard colonies.
(E) The Battle of Austerlitz.
(E) Rhode Island
(A) Accurate astronomical calendars.
(B) Domestication of wild horses.
(C) Rotation of agricultural crops.
(D) Descent from Asian peoples.
(E) Mining of gold and silver.
(A) were less militant than other Native American (Indian) tribes.
(B) all allied themselves with the American colonists against Great Britain during the Revolutionary War.
(C) successfully resisted incorporation into the English fur-trading system.
(D) were converted to Anglicanism.
(E) formed the most important Native American political organization to confront the colonists.
(A) the restriction of governmental intervention in the economy.
(B) the protection of Native Americans (Indians) from European economic exploitations.
(C) the expansion of colonial manufacturing.
(D) the subordination of the colonial economy to that of the mother country.
(E) noncompetitive commercial relations among nations.
(A) natural laws, set by the Creator, govern the operation of the universe.
(B) prayer has the power to make significant changes in a person's life.
(C) the idea of God is merely the childish imagining of simple minds.
(D) the universe was created by a natural, spontaneous combining of elements.
(E) intuition rather than reason leads human beings to an awareness of the divine.
(A) encourage colonial manufactures.
(B) impose revenue taxes on the colonies.
(C) ignore the colonies.
(D) restrict immigration from England.
(E) grant increased colonial self-government.
(A) It was forced on reluctant white Virginians by profit-minded English merchants and the mercantilist officials of the Crown.
(B) It was the first case in which Europeans enslaved Blacks.
(C) It fulfilled the original plans of the Virginia Company.
(D) It first occurred after the invention of Eli Whitney's cotton gin, which greatly stimulated the demand for low-cost labor.
(E) It spread rapidly in the late seventeenth century, as blacks displaced white indentured servants in the tobacco fields.
(A) Having suffered persecution in England, they extended toleration to everyone.
(B) The tolerated no one whose expressed religious views varied from their own views.
(C) They tolerated all Protestant sects, but not Catholics.
(D) They tolerated Catholics, but not Quakers.
(E) They had no coherent views on religious liberty.
(A) a religious revival that occurred throughout the American colonies.
(B) a slave rebellion in colonial South Carolina.
(C) an eighteenth century religious movement among Native Americans (Indians) dedicated to reaffirming traditional values.
(D) the flowering of Enlightment political thought in colonial America.
(E) an early colonial protest against English imperial policy.
(A) Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
(B) Juan Ponce de Leon
(C) Ferdinand Magellan
(D) Giovanni da Verranzano
(E) Hernando de Soto
(A) William Ellery Channing.
(B) Benjamin Rush.
(C) John Woolman.
(D) Cotton Mather.
(E) George Whitefield.
(A) fall line.
(B) Great Divide.
(A) establish religious liberty for all.
(B) eliminate the use of alcohol and tobacco.
(C) eliminate any distinction between church and state.
(D) reproduce the ecclesiastical structure of the Church of England.
(E) establish the moral authority of the community over individual self-interest..
(B) New York.
(C) New Jersey.
(D) New England.
(A) to encourage centralization and cooperation.
(B) to increase the wealth of the mother country.
(C) to keep the colonies friendly.
(D) to develop the fur trade.
(E) to encourage the Virginia tobacco crop.
(A) a belief in hard work, sobriety, and material success.
(B) a respect for education.
(C) a belief that intellectual leadership is supplied by the clergy.
(D) a disbelief in Democracy.
(E) a toleration of other religious beliefs.
(A) Juan Ponce de Leon.
(B) Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
(C) Giovanni da Verrazano
(D) Hernando de Soto
(E) Ferdinand Magellan
(A) expand humanity's vision of itself by stressing individual initiative.
(B) subject the community to the moral and political leadership of a few.
(C) promote the ideals of economic and political equality.
(D) raise the public's consciousness concerning the immorality of slavery.
(E) promote public awareness of the bad effects of alcohol by urging sobriety.
(A) Moravian Community in colonial Pennsylvania.
(B) Knickerbocker magazine of the 1840's.
(C) Rappites and Shakers.
(D) American Phrenological Journal in the 1840's.
(E) Philadelphia Junto Club.
(A) the Mexican-American War.
(B) the French and Indian War.
(C) the Revolutionary War.
(D) the Civil War.
(E) the War of 1812.
(A) early growth of New England education.
(B) eighteenth century belief in Deism.
(C) lack of public libraries.
(D) Puritan and Quaker attitudes toward slavery.
(E) curriculum of higher education.
(A) world economic dependency on the institution of slavery.
(B) the mobility of America's class structure.
(C) the damaging effects of slavery on the South's economy.
(D) patriotism and the glorification of the American nation.
(E) hard work, thrift, and sobriety as signs of election.
(A) There was general support for the political ideals of the Englightenment in France.
(B) an American victory would enable France to recapture Canada.
(C) Benjamin Franklin and his scientific achievements inspired the admiration of the French.
(D) France wished to reduce the British empire and gain influence in North America.
(E) France's ally, Spain, was eager to recapture Gibralter from Britain.
(A) increase colonial postal rates.
(B) establish a colonial mint to stamp out silver coins.
(C) facilitate British postal censorship of colonial mails.
(D) establish a colonial postal service.
(E) increase British tax revenue from the colonies.
I. Land speculators with interests west of the Appalachians
II. Newspaper editors and lawyers
III. Farmers wishing to settle in the Ohio River Valley
IV. Boston smugglers
(A) III only
(B) IV only
(C) I and III only
(D) I, III, and IV only
(E) I, II, III, IV
(A) Direct democracy is superior to representative government.
(B) Widespread ownership of property is a bulwark of republican government.
(C) Political parties are an inevitable outgrowth of republican government.
(D) Universal manhood suffrage is essential in a free government.
(E) The separation of legislative, executive, and judicial functions leads to governmental chaos.
(A) a means of amending the Articles.
(B) the authority to tax.
(C) the power to declare war.
(D) the authority to make treaties.
(E) a legislative branch.
(A) Jefferson and Henry had each served as governor of Virginia.
(B) Jefferson was only twenty-two in 1765.
(C) Jefferson's note was written to a man who was writing a biography of Henry.
(D) Jefferson was not actually a member of the House of Burgesses in 1765.
(E) Jefferson's note was written fifty-two years after the speech was delivered.
(A) formation of hypotheses about historical causation.
(B) validity of historical metaphor.
(C) credibility of historical evidence.
(D) use of anachronisms.
(E) form of historical citation.
(A) the sanctity of contracts.
(B) the supremecy of the executive over the legislative branch.
(C) judicial review.
(D) due process of law.
(E) equal access by any citizen to federal courts.
(A) a highly centralized government led by a social elite.
(B) a strong chief executive.
(C) a small, limited government responsible to the people.
(D) unlimited male suffrage.
(E) a society in which there were no differences of rank and status.
(A) enthusiasm for the revolutionary principles espoused by the Americans.
(B) a desire to weaken its rival, Great Britain.
(C) a desire to regain Canada and the Floridas.
(D) pressures from its ally, Spain.
(E) the hope of converting the United States into a French dependency.
(A) established the principle that western lands are the joint property of all the states.
(B) initiated a territorial policy that provided for the orderly creation of new states.
(C) made possible a policy of Native American (Indian) relations that enabled new western areas to be settled peacefully.
(D) put land into the hands of the actual settler rather than the speculator.
(E) were the basis for the future settlement of the dispute with Britain over the northwest posts.
(A) lawyers, doctors, and other professtionals.
(B) northern merchants and southern planters.
(C) inland farmers.
(E) local governmental officials.
(A) the American desire to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
(B) the struggle between England and France for world supremecy.
(C) the expansion of French influence in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys.
(D) the British abandonment of the policy of "salutary neglect."
(E) the British violation of the principle of "freedom of the seas."
The Issuing of the Declaration of Independence is associated with "Governments are instituted among men..."
(A) The issuing of the Declaration of Independence
(B) A naval victory of John Paul Jones
(C) The signing of the Mayflower Compact
(D) The First Continental Congress
(E) The outbreak of the American Revolution
(A) Granted a virtual monopoly to the East India Company.
(B) Closed the port of Boston, changed the government of Massachusetts, and tried royal officials in Great Britain.
(C) Ordered the colonists to remain on the eastern side of the Appalachians.
(D) Reaffirmed Parliament's right to tax the colonists.
(E) Defied the English by destroying English property.
(A) Taxes on newspapers
(B) The goal of regulating trade with the West Indies
(C) Prohibition of paper money in the colonies
(D) The prevention of frauds and abuses in trade
(E) Imposing high tariffs on imports from the West Indies.
(A) an increase in sectional self-awareness.
(B) a boycott against England.
(C) improved conditions for construction of a canal through Central America.
(D) improvement of agricultural education.
(E) stimulation of migration westward.
(A) delegated powers.
(B) concurrent powers.
(D) "elastic clause."
(E) immigration laws.
(A) a view of Alexander Hamilton.
(B) families dominating the older Atlantic states.
(C) a view of Benjamin Franklin.
(D) the life of Thomas Paine.
(E) Jefferson's delight in the exploration of the Northwest.
(A) The Dutch Reformed
(B) The Anglicans
(C) The Congregationalists
(D) The Presbyterians
(E) The Unitarians
(A) two terms for the president.
(B) equality under the law.
(C) direct election of senators.
(D) presidential nominating conventions.
(E) trial by jury.
(A) annexation of Texas.
(B) Mexican Cessian.
(C) Oregon Territory.
(D) Northwest Territory.
(E) Louisiana Territory.
(A) the Committees of Correspondence were formed.
(B) the First Continental Congress was convened.
(C) the principle of "salutary neglect" ended.
(D) the colonists resented mercantilist economic policy.
(E) colonists demanded "no taxation without representation."
(A) the powers reserved by the states.
(B) the powers held concurrently.
(C) the powers delegated to the Congress.
(D) a loose interpretation of the Constitution .
(E) the Preamble to the Consititution.
a. Eastern and southern European.
b. Germany and Ireland
c. Great Britain and Italy.
d. Poland and Russia.
e. Czechoslovakia and Rumania